50 Years ago today, the first American combat troops arrived in Vietnam. Until this point only military advisor's and pilots had been assisting the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). But on the 8th of March 1965, two Battalions of US Marines (3,500 Men) landed at Da Nang. Triggering the beginning of America's ground war in Vietnam. By the end of the year 200,000 US personal were "In Country". The ordering of troops to Vietnam by President Lyndon B. Johnson and Secretary of Defense, Robert S. McNamara had come as a direct result of an attack on the USS Maddox on August 4th, 1964 by three North Vietnamese Navy gunboats while stationed in Vietnamese waters. This became known as the Golf of Tonkin incident. Over the next 10 years 153,303 American military personnel would be wounded in action, 2646 would be missing in action (1636 as of 2015) and 58,303 would lose their lives. Along with... 63 Journalists 500 Australians 39 New Zealanders 171,331 - 313,000 ARVN 200,000 - 300,000 Cambodians 20,000 - 200,000 Laotians 5,099 South Koreans 351 Thai's 9 Filipino 25 Taiwanese 1,446 Chinese 16 Russians 444,000 - 1,100,000 North Vietnamese Army & Viet Cong 587,000 - 2 Million Civilians There is also an undisclosed number of British KIA as many members of the SAS and other branches of the Her Majesty's Armed Forces were employed in Jungle warfare training tactics, defense of special forces camps and other covert operations in Vietnam, who temporarily left the British Army to join the Australian & New Zealand military. The United Kingdom was not officially involved in the war. By March 1973 the last US combat soldiers had left South Vietnam 3 million Americans had served. April 29, 1975, Two US Marines of the Marine Security Guard Battalion were killed by a North Vietnamese rocket attack. While guarding a compound in Saigon. Charles McMahon was 21 (Killed 11 days before his 22nd Birthday) And Darwin Judge was 19. These were the last two United States servicemen to die in Vietnam. April 30, 1975, Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese Army. The war was officially over. In 2003 The former Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara admitted that the North Vietnamese Navy did not attack the USS Maddox on August 4th 1964. The Gulf of Tonkin incident never happened! In 1985 after watching an ABC news documentary entitled 'Vietnam Requiem', British born electronic music producer Paul Hardcastle, was inspired to create a track featuring the narrated vocal samples of Peter Thomas from the original documentary. It was released on the 10th anniversary of the Vietnam war and quickly gained interest, reaching No.1 in the UK charts and across the globe. Due to its unexpected success, the record label asked the documentary directors to rush a video into production to accompany the track using clips from the documentary and various news network footage. After it was first aired on MTV, complaints were made by some of the networks who objected to the "bad taste" of using serious clips in a "trivial" electronic music video. So the directors were forced to re cut a new video using public domain footage. 30 years later we at Bio Rhythms attempt to pay our own tribute to the men and women who served in Vietnam and to Paul Hardcastle for being the first electronic music producer to tackle the controversial subject of Vietnam.
PTSD is diagnosed after a person experiences symptoms for at least one month following a traumatic event. However symptoms may not appear until several months or even years later. The disorder is characterized by three main types of symptoms:
- Re-experiencing the trauma through intrusive distressing recollections of the event, flashbacks, and nightmares.
- Emotional numbness and avoidance of places, people, and activities that are reminders of the trauma.
- Increased arousal such as difficulty sleeping and concentrating, feeling jumpy, and being easily irritated and angered.
Diagnosis criteria that apply to adults, adolescents, and children older than six include those below. Read more details here.
Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation:
- directly experiencing the traumatic events
- witnessing, in person, the traumatic events
- learning that the traumatic events occurred to a close family member or close friend; cases of actual or threatened death must have been violent or accidental
- experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic events (Examples are first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse). Note: This does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless exposure is work-related.
The presence of one or more of the following:
- spontaneous or cued recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic events (Note: In children repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the traumatic events are expressed.)
- recurrent distressing dreams in which the content or affect (i.e. feeling) of the dream is related to the events (Note: In children there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.)
- flashbacks or other dissociative reactions in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic events are recurring (Note: In children trauma-specific reenactment may occur in play.)
- intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic events
- physiological reactions to reminders of the traumatic events
Persistent avoidance of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic events or of external reminders (i.e., people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations)
Two or more of the following:
- inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic events (not due to head injury, alcohol, or drugs)
- persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., “I am bad,” “No one can be trusted,” "The world is completely dangerous").
- persistent, distorted blame of self or others about the cause or consequences of the traumatic events
- persistent fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame
- markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities
- feelings of detachment or estrangement from others
- persistent inability to experience positive emotions
Two or more of the following marked changes in arousal and reactivity:
- irritable or aggressive behavior
- reckless or self-destructive behavior
- exaggerated startle response
- problems with concentration
- difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep
Also, clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning not attributed to the direct physiological effects of medication, drugs, or alcohol or another medical condition, such as traumatic brain injury.